Media-Military Relations, Politics, United States, Washington

How to Write a Graduate Student Thesis on Military-Media Relations in the USA! in 120 Days

(Plagiarizers, be forewarned mine is already officially submitted to the Georgetown Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and yours will only be an imitation at best and at worst get you in really, really big trouble with the man either now or later in life. See: former German Defense Minister Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg.)

Bill Mauldin’s Army: Bill Mauldin’s Greatest World War II Cartoons, p. 378.

Photojournalists like to create what are called “gear posts” whereby they empty the contents of their backpack and dutifully record each and every item down to the essence and origin of even the lint in the lining (“specially made in Nepal” or “hair from a lamb we slaughtered in Sudan”). I have no intention of doing any such thing, because I imagine most of you would probably be correct to assume that I wear a scarf with a bit of perfume on it (protective against offensive odors), and carry a whole bunch of lenses and batteries (for making pictures and ensuring I do not run out of power in the process), and other things too like cameras, notebooks, water. With that accomplished in less than 150 words, I will turn now to how to write a graduate thesis on media-military relations for the Georgetown University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Security Studies Program. Essential ingredients:

– 8 tins of Lavazza espresso; begin with medium roast, slowly escalating intensity of aroma and flavor
– a place to drive to that requires at least eight hours on the road to “let the lead out”; if you are a Zeppelin fan, you may “let the Led out”
– the infinite patience of your friends and family
– the infinite patience of your thesis adviser and graduate program’s director
– a friendly dentist to visit when a tooth is in need of a shaving “like a boy coming home from the front” and starts causing crippling pain hours before thesis must be submitted
– a friendly U.S. marine to number your pages when you cannot figure Word out for yourself; Sebastian Junger describes such skills as “man knowledge,” defined as “everything a man needs to know to get by in this world” (and as an example lists knowing where to kick a generator to get it going again); in Washingtonia, a very real land of bureaucrats and policy makers, knowing Word fits the definition (PowerPoint becomes necessary only in time)
– a penchant for finding humor in the absurd

Many of these things cannot be illustrated, neither with words or pictures. The cartoons of Bill Mauldin at a certain point struck a deep chord and prompted some cartoon renderings of my own, a favorite showing two classrooms with students studying two maps of the world side by side, the first in 1953 with hammers and sickles on every continent encroaching slowly on our own and the second in 2003 with AQ just about everywhere but the arctic.

Otherwise for those of you who care much more about the topic than about my marginalia, here is the bibliography as submitted based upon the works I found included in the contents of my paper, “Dance or Duel: Three Case Studies of Evolutionary Experimentation in Military-Media Relations in the United States”. If the title sounds familiar, borrowed, in tribute to something, it is. The finest academic text I have ever read is Revolutionary Dreams: Utopian Vision and Experimental Life in the Russian Revolution by Richard Stites, a professor at Georgetown University until his death in the spring of last year. Sadly, I never had Stites as a professor, but I deeply wish I had. I was previously admitted to Georgetown’s Russia and East European Studies Program for the fall of 2006 but deferred to go to journalism school and eventually enrolled in the Security Studies Program when a significant scholarship was forthcoming. I had hoped to have at least one encounter with Professor Stites at Georgetown; unfortunately that came at his memorial service last spring.

Without further ado, the bibliography:

Media Perspective: Covering Conflict

Aukofer, Frank and Lawrence, William P. (1995). America’s Team, The Odd Couple: A Report on the Relationship Between the Military and the Media. Freedom Forum First Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University; Nashville, Tennessee.

Carruthers, Susan (2000). The Media at War: Communication and Conflict in the Twentieth Century. St. Martin’s Press; New York.

Gowing, Nik (1994). Real Time Television Coverage of Armed Conflicts and Diplomatic Crises: Does it Pressure or Distort Foreign Policy Decisions. Spring; Working Paper #1994-1. Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, Harvard University; Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Hedges, Chris (2003). War Is a Force That Gives Us Meaning. Anchor Books; New York.

Hunt, W. Ben (1997). Getting to War: Predicting International Conflict with Mass Media Indicators. University of Michigan Press; Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Knightley, Philip (2004). The First Casualty: The War Correspondent as Hero and Mythmaker from the Crimea to Iraq. The Johns Hopkins University Press; Baltimore and London.

Livingston, Steven (1997). Clarifying the CNN Effect: An Examination of Media Effects According to Type of Military Intervention. Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Osgood, Kenneth and Frank, Andrew [Eds.] (2010). Selling War in a Media Age: The Presidency and Public Opinion in the American Century. University Press of Florida.

Spencer, Graham (2005). The Media and Peace: From Vietnam to the ‘War on Terror’. Palgrave Macmillan; London.

Strobel, William (1996). “The CNN Effect,” American Journalism Review. May. Available [online]

Sweeney, Michael (2006). The Military and the Press: An Uneasy Truce. Medill School of Journalism, Northwestern University Press; Evanston, Illinois.

Uko, Ndaeyo (2004). Romancing the Gun: The Press as a Promoter of Military Rule. Africa World Press, Inc.; Trenton, New Jersey and Asmara, Eritrea.

Young, Peter (1997). The Media and the Military: From Crimea to Desert Strike. Palgrave Macmillan.

Military Perspective: Public Affairs

Braestrup, Peter (1985). Battle Lines: Report of the Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on the Military and the Media (background paper). Priority Press Publications; New York.

Der Derian, James (2001). Virtuous War: Mapping the Military-Industrial-Media-Entertainment Network. Westview Press; Boulder, Colorado.

Deutsch, Karl Wolfgang (1963). The Nerves of Government: Models of Political Communication and Control. Free Press of Glencoe; New York.

Deutsch, Karl Wolfgang (1974). Politics and Government: How People Decide Their Fate. Houghton Mifflin; Boston.

Edelman, Murray (1971). Politics as Symbolic Action: Mass Arousal and Quiescence. Academic Press; New York.

Edelman, Murray (1988). Constructing the Political Spectacle. University of Chicago Press; Chicago.

Edelman, Murray (2001). The Politics of Misinformation. Cambridge University Press; New York.

Huntington, Samuel. The Soldier and the State.

Kennedy, William (1993). The Military and the Media: Why the Press Cannot Be Trusted to Cover a War. Praeger Publishers; Westport, Connecticut.

Lasswell, Harold D. (1997). Essays on the Garrison State. Transaction Publishers; New Brunswick, NJ.

Rid, Thomas (2008). War and Media Operations: The U.S. Military and the Press from Vietnam to Iraq. Routledge.

Human Rights Culture and Evolution

Moyn, Samuel (2010). The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Nash, Kate (2009). The Cultural Politics of Human Rights: Comparing the US and the UK. Cambridge University Press; Cambridge and New York.

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (1975). “Helsinki Final Act.”

Shay, Jonathan (1994). Achilles in Vietnam: Combat Trauma and the Undoing of Character. Atheneum; New York.

Stacy, Helen (2009). Human Rights for the 21st Century: Sovereignty, Civil Society, Culture. Stanford University Press; Stanford, California.

Wilson, Richard [Ed.] (1997). “Human Rights, Culture and Context: An Introduction,” Richard A. Wilson; “Liberalism, Socio-economic Rights and the Politics of Identity: From Moral Economy to Indigenous Rights,” John Gledhill; “On Torture, or Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment,” Talal Asad and “Representing Human Rights Violations: Social Contexts and Subjectivities,” by Richard A. Wilson, Human Rights, Culture and Context: Anthropological Perspectives. Pluto Press; London and Chicago.

Case Study: World War II

Bourke-White, Margaret (1944). They Called It “Purple Heart Valley”. Simon and Schuster; New York.

Braverman, Jordan (1995). “Introduction,” “The Home Front: An Overview,” “Publications: The Books We Read,” and “World War II: A Turning Point,” To Hasten the Homecoming: How Americans Fought World War II Through the Media. Madison Books; Lanham, Maryland.

Laurence, William (1945). “Atomic Bomb on Nagasaki,” The New York Times. September 9.

Liebling, A.J. (2008). A.J. Liebling: World War II Writings. Library of America.

Mauldin, Bill (1983). Bill Mauldin’s Army: Bill Mauldin’s World War II Cartoons. Presidio Press.

Pyle, Ernie (2001). Brave Men. University of Nebraska Press; Lincoln, Nebraska.

Pyle, Ernie (2004). Here is Your War: Story of G.I. Joe. University of Nebraska Press; Lincoln, Nebraska.

Stoler, Mark A. (2010). “Selling Different Kinds of War: Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Public Opinion During World War II,” Selling War in a Media Age: The Presidency and Public Opinion in the American Century. [Eds] Osgood, Kenneth and Frank, Andrew. University Press of Florida; Gainesville, Florida.

Case Study: Vietnam

Adams, Eddie (2008). Vietnam. Umbrage Editions; Brooklyn, New York.

Burrows, Larry (2002). Vietnam. Alfred A. Knopf; New York.

Ellsberg, Daniel (2003). Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers. Penguin Books; New York.

FitzGerald, Frances (1972). Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam. Little, Brown and Company; Boston.

Halberstam, David (1964). The Making of a Quagmire: America and Vietnam During the Kennedy Era. Alfred A. Knopf; New York.

Halberstam, David (1993). The Best and the Brightest. Ballantine Books; New York.

Hammond, William (1996). Public Affairs: The Military and the Media, 1968-1973. Center of Military History, United States Army; Washington, D.C.

Herr, Michael (2009). Dispatches. Alfred A. Knopf; New York.

Jones Griffiths, Philip (2001). Vietnam Inc. Phaidon Press; London and New York.

Kennedy, William V. (1993). The Military and the Media: Why the Press Cannot Be Trusted to Cover a War.

Manning, Robert (1986). The Vietnam Experience: Images of War. Boston Publishing Company.

Mills, Nick B. (1983). The Vietnam Experience: Combat Photographer. Boston Publishing Company.

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (1975). “Helsinki Final Act.”

Shay, Jonathan (1994). Achilles in Vietnam: Combat Trauma and the Undoing of Character. Atheneum; New York.

Sheehan, Neil (1988). A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam. Random House; New York.

Case Study Three: Post-September 11th Conflicts

Abdul-Ahad, Ghaith; Alford, Kael; Anderson, Thorne and Leistner, Rita (2005). Unembedded: Four Independent Photojournalists on the War in Iraq. Chelsea Green Publishing Company; White River Junction, Vermont.

Boal, Mark (2011). “The Kill Team,” Rolling Stone. March 27.

Filkins, Dexter (2008). The Forever War. Vintage Books; New York.

Gordon, Michael R. and Miller, Judith (2002). “U.S. Says Hussein Intensified Quest for A-Bomb Parts,” The New York Times. September 8.

Hastings, Michael (2010). “The Runaway General,” Rolling Stone. June 22.

Hersh, Seymour (2004). “Torture at Abu Ghraib,” The New Yorker. May 10.

Junger, Sebastian (2010). War. Hachette Book Group; New York.

Kamber, Michael (advance proof from author, 2010). Uncensored: A Photojournalists’ Oral History of the Iraq War.

Packer, George (2005). The Assassins’ Gate: America in Iraq. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux; New York.

Ricks, Thomas (2006). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. Penguin Press; New York.

Ricks, Thomas (2010). “You Can Go Strangle Yourself With That Yellow Ribbon, Or, Here Is What I Want You To Do Instead of Shaking My Hand,” Foreign Policy. December 8.

Rosen, Nir (2006). The Triumph of the Martyrs: A Reporter’s Journey into Occupied Iraq. Free Press; New York.

Rubin, Elizabeth (2008). “Battle Company Is Out There,” The New York Times Magazine. February 24.

Rubin, Elizabeth (2010). “Lynsey Addario at War,” Aperture. No. 201; Winter.

Saba, Marcel (2003). Witness Iraq: A War Journal February-April 2003. PowerHouse Books; New York.

Scahill, Jeremy (2007). Blackwater: The Rise of the World’s Most Powerful Mercenary Army. Nation Books; New York.

Van Baarda, Th. A. and Verwelj, D.E.M. [Eds.] (2009). The Moral Dimension of Asymmetrical Warfare: Counter-terrorism, Democratic Values and Military Ethics. Martinus Nijhoff; Leiden and Boston.

Wilkinson, Paul (2006). Terrorism Versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response. Routledge; London and New York.

Finally for the gear-aholics, some parting pictures of the last 120 days in Lavazza:

Lavazza in the refrigerator door, March 30, 2011.

Lavazza with wish bone over the kitchen sink, March 31, 2011.

Lavazza pyramid beside first prize and award from third annual bacon party, April 8, 2011.

GEAR NOTE: Lavazza is merely the best bang for the buck at my local grocery; please substitute local, organic, fair trade (my mother’s favorite culinary advertising word is “oven roasted”; they mean “baked,” she says, as “in the oven”), etc. blend of your choice and moral determination. They did not pay me to write about them, however if they would like to, I ask a pretty penny.

(This post updates an earlier post, “Thesis Bibliography: The Relationship Between the Military and Media in a Time of War – Three Case Studies (Second World War, Vietnam, Post-September 11 Conflicts) of America in Multi-Year Conflicts,” of January 7, 2011.)