(NOTE: An updated bibliography and account, “How to Write A Graduate Thesis on Military-Media Relations in the USA! in 120 Days” posted April 14, 2011.)
Over the next five months, I will dedicate no small part of my time to the task of studying the relationship of the U.S. military and the American media during a time of war. I will examine three case studies of multi-year involvement in foreign conflict from the Second World War and Vietnam era to the present, post-September 11 conflicts. My work will first be collected towards my thesis in the Security Studies program at the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service. I hope to also see the work evolve into a magazine article. I will amend this list periodically as my bibliography expands. I also hope to collect numerous interviews with current practitioners, editors, communications managers, and military public affairs officers relevant to the study of the relationship between the military and the media as possible between then and now.
Historical Rise of the Modern War Correspondent
Goldstein, Robert Justin (1989). Political Censorship of the Arts and the Press in Nineteenth Century Europe. St. Martin’s Press; New York.
Russell, William Howard (2009). The Crimean War: As Seen By Those Who Reported It. Louisiana State University Press; Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Spencer, Graham. The Media and Peace: From Vietnam to ‘The War on Terror.’ Palgrave Macmillan.
Media Theory of Conflict Coverage
Carruthers, Susan (2000). The Media at War: Communication and Conflict in the Twentieth Century. St. Martin’s Press; New York.
Hedges, Chris. War Is a Force That Gives Us Meaning. Anchor Books; New York.
Hunt, W. Ben (1997). Getting to War: Predicting International Conflict with Mass Media Indicators. University of Michigan Press; Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Knightley, Philip (2004). The First Casualty: The War Correspondent as Hero and Mythmaker from the Crimea to Iraq. The Johns Hopkins University Press; Baltimore.
Strobel, William. “The CNN Effect,” American Journalism Review. May 1996..
Government and Military Theory of Propaganda, Later Public Relations
Bernays, Edward (2004). Propaganda. Ig Publishing; New York.
Biddle, Stephen (2004). Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle. Princeton University Press; Princeton, New Jersey.
Deutsch, Karl Wolfgang (1963). The Nerves of Government: Models of Political Communication and Control. Free Press of Glencoe; London.
Deutsch, Karl Wolfgang (1974). Politics and Government: How People Decide Their Fate. Houghton Mifflin; Boston.
Huntington, Samuel P. (1957). The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Edelman, Murray (1971). Politics as Symbolic Action: Mass Arousal and Quiescence. Academic Press; New York.
Edelman, Murray (2001). The Politics of Misinformation. Cambridge University Press; New York.
Kilcullen, David (2010). Counterinsurgency. Oxford University Press; New York.
Lang, Anthony [Ed.] (2003). Just Intervention. Georgetown University Press; Washington, D.C.
Aukofer, Frank (1995). “America’s Team, The Odd Couple: A Report on the Relationship Between the Military and the Media,” Freedom Forum First Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University; Nashville, Tennessee.
Braestrup, Peter (1985). Battle Lines: Report of the Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on the Military and the Media (background paper). Priority Press Publications; New York.
According to Robert Justin Goldstein, author of Political Censorship of the Arts and the Press in Nineteenth Century Europe, Battle Lines, the report of the task force of the Twentieth Century Fund “consisted of former military and Government officials, scholars and journalists, and heard presentations from military officials, journalists, and others… The creation of the task force was prompted by the exclusion of news organizations from covering the early stages of the United States invasion of Grenada in October 1983… From before World War II until the Grenada invasion, setting information policy had been considered a civilian decision, rather than a military one, according to the report.” (p. 337)
Der Derian, James (2001). Virtuous War: Mapping the Military-Industrial-Media-Entertainment Network. Westview Press; Boulder, Colorado.
Gowing, Nik (1994). “Real Time Television Coverage of Armed Conflicts and Diplomatic Crises: Does it Pressure or Distort Foreign Policy Decisions,” Spring; Working Paper #1994-1. Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, Harvard University; Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Osgood, Kenneth and Frank, Andrew [Eds.] (2010). Selling War in a Media Age: The Presidency and Public Opinion in the American Century. University Press of Florida.
Smith, Jeffrey Alan (1999). War and Press Freedom: The Problem of Prerogative Power. Oxford University Press; New York.
Uko, Ndaeyo (2004). Romancing the Gun: The Press as a Promoter of Military Rule. Africa World Press, Inc.; Trenton, New Jersey and Asmara, Eritrea.
Young, Peter (1997). The Media and the Military: From Crimea to Desert Strike. Palgrave Macmillan.
Human Rights Culture and Evolution
Moyn, Samuel (2010). The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Nash, Kate (2009). The Cultural Politics of Human Rights: Comparing the US and the UK. Cambridge University Press; Cambridge and New York.
Stacy, Helen (2009). Human Rights for the 21st Century: Sovereignty, Civil Society, Culture. Stanford University Press; Stanford, California.
Wilson, Richard [Ed.] (1997). Human Rights, Culture and Context: Anthropological Perspectives. Pluto Press; London and Chicago.
Case Study One: World War Two
Braverman, Jordan (1995). To Hasten the Homecoming: How Americans Fought World War II Through the Media. Madison Books; Lanham, Maryland.
Hynes, Samuel; Matthews, Anne; Caldwell Sorel, Nancy and Spiller, Roger J. (1995). Reporting World War II Part Two: American Journalism 1944-1946. Library of America; New York.
Laurence, William (1946). Selected articles, The New York Times.
Pulitzer-Prize winning science correspondent for The New York Times and official journalist of The Manhattan Project who witnessed dropping of the atomic bomb on Nagasaki.
Liebling, A.J. (2008). A.J. Liebling: World War II Writings. Library of America.
Matthews, Anne; Caldwell Sorel, Nancy and Spiller, Roger J. (1995). Reporting World War II Volume One: American Journalism 1938-1944. Library of America; New York.
Maudlin, Bill (1983). Bill Maudlin’s Army: Bill Maudlin’s World War II Cartoons. Presidio Press.
The New York Times archives.
Pyle, Ernie (2001). Brave Men. Bison Books.
Pyle, Ernie (2004). Here is Your War: Story of G.I. Joe. Bison Books.
Case Study Two: Vietnam
Bates, Milton J.; Lichty, Lawrence; Miles, Paul; Spector, Richard and Young, Marilyn (2000). Reporting Vietnam: American Journalism 1959-1975. Library of America; New York.
Bernstein, Carl and Woodward, Bob (1974). All the President’s Men. Simon and Schuster; New York.
Ellsberg, Daniel (2003). Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers. Penguin Books; New York.
Halberstam, David (1993). The Best and the Brightest. Ballantine Books; New York.
Hallin, Daniel (1986). The “Uncensored War”: The Media and Vietnam. Oxford University Press; New York.
Credited as the first revisionist history of the media’s role in the public discourse in the United States concerning the Vietnam War.
Hammond, William (1988). Public Affairs: The Military and the Media, 1962-1968. Center of Military History, United States Army; Washington, D.C.
Hammond, William (1996). Public Affairs: The Military and the Media, 1968-1973. Center of Military History, United States Army; Washington, D.C.
Hammond, William (1999). Reporting Vietnam: Media and Military at War. University of Kansas Press.
Senior historian with the U.S. Army’s Center of Military History; depicts Pentagon struggle against the press and what Hammond believes to be a press coup.
Herr, Michael (2009). Dispatches. Everyman’s Library, Alfred A. Knopf; New York.
Kennedy, William V. (1993). The Military and the Media: Why the Press Cannot Be Trusted to Cover a War.
The New York Times archives.
The New York Times and The Wasington Post (1971). Pentagon Papers.
Case Study Three: Post-September 11th Conflicts
Ali, Tariq (2008). The Duel: Pakistan on the Flight Path of American Power. Scribner; New York.
Bumiller, Elizabeth with photographs by Addario, Lynsey, “In Camouflage or Veil, a Fragile Bond,” The New York Times. May 29, 2010.
Cockburn, Patrick (2008). Muqtada Al-Sadr and the Battle for the Future of Iraq. Scribnher; New York.
Coll, Steve (2004). Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin Press; New York.
Coll, Steve (2008). The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century. Penguin Books; New York.
Conroy, Thomas and Hanson, Jarice (2008). Constructing America’s War Culture: Iraq, Media and Images at Home. Lexington Books; Lanham, Maryland.
Hastings, Michael. “The Runaway General,” Rolling Stone. June 22, 2010.
The article that resulted in President Obama’s firing of General Stanley McChrystal on the grounds of insubordination.
Hersh, Seymour (2005). Chain of Command: The Road from 9/11 to Abu Ghraib. Harper Perennial; New York.
Hoyt, Mike and Palattella, John (2007). Reporting Iraq: An Oral History of the War by the Journalists Who Covered It. Melville House Publishing; Hoboken, New Jersey.
Kamber, Michael (advance proof from author, 2010). Uncensored: A Photojournalists’ Oral History of the Iraq War.
Livingston, Steven (1997). “Clarifying the CNN Effect: An Examination of Media Effects According to Type of Military Intervention,” Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The New York Times archives.
Packer, George (2006). The Assasins’ Gate: America in Iraq. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux; New York.
Ricks, Thomas (2006). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. Penguin Press; New York.
Rid, Thomas (2008). War and Media Operations: The U.S. Military and the Press from Vietnam to Iraq. Routledge.
Risen, James (2007). State of War: The Secret History of the C.I.A. and the Bush Administration. Free Press; New York.
Rosen, Nir (2008). The Triumph of the Martyrs: A Reporter’s Journey into Occupied Iraq. Potomac Books, Inc.
Rosen, Nir (2010). Aftermath: Following the Bloodshed of America’s Wars in the Muslim World. Nation Books; New York.
Rubin, Elizabeth with photographs by Addario, Lynsey. “Battle Company Is Out There,” The New York Times Magazine. February 24, 2008.
Scahill, Jeremy (2007). Blackwater: The Rise of the World’s Most Powerful Mercenary Army. Nation Books; New York.
Sweeney, Michael (2006). The Military and the Press: An Uneasy Truce. Medill School of Journalism, Northwestern University Press; Evanston, Illinois.
Journalistic establishment response to the new codes of press conduct in a time of war as outlined in the course of the early coverage of the Iraq War.
Sylvester, Judith and Huffman, Suzanne (2004). Reporting from the Front: The Media and the Military. Rowman and Littlefield; Lanham, Maryland.
Van Baarda, Th. A. and Verwelj, D.E.M. [Eds.] (2009). The Moral Dimension of Asymmetrical Warfare: Counter-terrorism, Democratic Values and Military Ethics. Martinus Nijhoff; Leiden and Boston.
Wilkinson, Paul (2006). Terrorism Versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response. Routledge; London and New York.
Woodward, Bob (2003). Bush at War. Simon and Schuster; New York.
Woodward, Bob (2004). Plan of Attack. Simon and Schuster; New York.
Woodward, Bob (2010). Obama’s Wars. Simon and Schuster; New York.
Wright, Lawrence (2006). The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. Vintage Books; New York.